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Penelitian

Tanggal Publikasi: 1 Mar 2023

Perkembangan Wakaf Uang di Indonesia Dampaknya Terhadap Kemajuan Pesantren

Wakaf Uang adalah instrumen keuangan Islam yang sangat urgen dan menjadi bagian dalam syariat Islam. Dari perspektif eksistensinya, wakaf uang sebagai hal yang baru di Indonesia. Keberadaan wakaf uang di Indonesia muncul setelah Majelis Ulama Indonesia mengeluarkan  fatwa tentang bolehnya wakaf uang tahun 2002. Dan peluang pengembangan itu menjadi lebih besar lagi setelah disahkannya rancangan Undang-Undang Wakaf menjadi Undang-Undang Nomor 41 Tahun 2004 perihal Wakaf. Dengan adanya Undang-Undang Wakaf tersebut memberikan harapan kepada semua pihak dalam upaya pemberdayaan ekonomi rakyat, di samping untuk kepentingan peribadatan dan sarana sosial lainnya. Masalah inti dalam dalam makalah ini adalah, bagaimana potensi wakaf uang yang ada dapat memberikan dampak yang signifikan terutama untuk sektor pendidikan seperti pesantren dan lainnya. Dengan demikian tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mendapatkan gambaran potensi wakaf uang di Indonesia serta dampaknya dalam dalam upaya pemberdayaan ekonomi umat terutama lembaga-lembaga pendidikan agama di Indonessia. Metode yang digunakan dalam makalah ini adalah metode study literature, melalui penjelasan deskriotif teori yang berhubungan dengan judul, yang diperoleh dari jurnal, buku dokumentasi, dan media lain yang relevan.

Penelitian

Tanggal Publikasi: 17 Feb 2023

Analysis of Understanding and Application of Fiqh Muamalah (Bai’) at Tanah Abang Market Traders Block B with Phenomenology Approach

To analyze the understanding and application of fiqh muamalah at Tanah Abang Market Traders Block B.Design/methodology/approach–The method in this research is Qualitative research methods with a phenomenological approach with nine respondents.Findings–The results of the research in this study are 88% do not understand but apply and 11% understand and apply in the pillars of bai, 83% understand and apply 17% do not understand and do not apply tothe theme of valid bai requirements, 100% do not understand and apply to the qadbh theme, 66% understand and apply 33% do not understand and do not apply to the theme of khiar, 94% understand and do not apply 6% do not understand and do not apply to the theme of usury, 81% understand and do not apply 19% do not understand and do not apply to the theme of gharar, 100% understand and do not apply to the theme of dzalimResearch limitations/implications–The scope used in the study only covers places that are not too large and broad in scope, and this study only uses 2 variables. The pandemic conditions hampered the research process, so that when the interview process the results were not optimal.Originality/value–The results of the research can beused as a basis for reference for educational institutions to actively provide socialization to traders, as well as religious institutions to be able to provide scientific studies on fiqh muamalah to market traders at Tanah Abang Block B

Penelitian

Tanggal Publikasi: 17 Feb 2023

Measuring the Provincial Sharia Happiness IndexMeasuring the Provincial Sharia Happiness Index

his study aims to measure Sharia happiness index of 33 provinces in Indonesia from 2014 to 2017

Design/methodology/approach – This research is descriptive with a quantitative approach, a modification of happiness index in 33 provinces in Indonesia conducted by BPS (Badan Pusat Statistik) published in 2014 and 2017 HLMS (Happiness Level Measurement Survey) by adding aspects that are in accordance with Sharia.

Findings – Average happiness index for Indonesia based on BPS HLMS in 2014 was 68.79, increasing to 71.47 in 2017. The highest happiness index was province of North Maluku (73.12), and the lowest was province of Papua (64.25). Meanwhile, the average Sharia happiness index in Indonesia is 70.53. The highest average score was of Yogyakarta (74.11), and the lowest score was province of Papua (59.47).

Research limitation/implication – The Government and Policy Stakeholders should pay attention and support to the factors that affect the level of religious satisfaction, which are proven to have a positive impact on the welfare and happiness of the community, where the majority of the Indonesian population is Muslim.

Originality/value – Studies on sharia happiness at the provincial level are rare. Shariah happiness journals tend to discuss happiness at the conceptual level, very few describe Shariah happiness at the application level. This research enriches Islamic discourse in the context of macroeconomics which can be used as a reference for further research and studies

Penelitian

Tanggal Publikasi: 17 Feb 2023

The Analysis of Small Medium Enterprise’s Sukuk Investment Intention Through Financial Technology Securities Crowdfunding

The study is aimed at examining the determinants of retail investor to invest in small medium enterprise’s (SME) sukuk through Fintech Securities Crowdfunding (SCF) using the extended theory of planned behaviour (TPB). The cluster random sampling was applied and survey was conducted by distributing online questionairre to retail investors who already invested through SCF in Indonesia officially licensed by the OJK (Authority of Financial Services). The data of 218 respondent were analysed using SmartPLS 3.2.9. The result suggested that attitude, subjective norm and perceived behaviour control were statistically found significant to intention to invest in SME’s sukuk. The result also showed that other variables observed, knowledge, religious factor and risk & return have positively significant impact on attitude toward SME’s sukuk

Penelitian

Tanggal Publikasi: 1 Feb 2023

Analysis of Small Medium Enterprise’s Sukuk Investment Intention Through Financial Technology Securities Crowdfunding

The study is aimed at examining the determinants of retail investor to invest in small medium enterprise’s (SME) sukuk through Fintech Securities Crowdfunding (SCF) using the extended theory of planned behaviour (TPB). The cluster random sampling was applied and survey was conducted by distributing online questionairre to retail investors who already invested through SCF in Indonesia officially licensed by the OJK (Authority of Financial Services). The data of 218 respondent were analysed using SmartPLS 3.2.9. The result suggested that attitude, subjective norm and perceived behaviour control were statistically found significant to intention to invest in SME’s sukuk. The result also showed that other variables observed, knowledge, religious factor and risk & return have positively significant impact on attitude toward SME’s sukuk investment. Interestingly, sharia compliance factor not significantly impact to attitude.

Penelitian

Tanggal Publikasi: 30 Jan 2023

SERTIFIKASI HALAL DI INDONESIA Dari Voluntary Menjadi Mandatory

Although Indonesia is the country with the largest Muslim population in the world, the halal industry faces several risks related to Shariah compliance. Following the enactment of Halal Assurance Law No. 33 of 2014, halal certification has become mandatory in Indonesia. Before, halal certificate was voluntary. The objective of this study is to discuss on the development of halal governance in Indonesia covering Halal Act, related government regulations and decrees from Ministries related to halal assurance and food security. In summary, the changes in halal governance in Indonesia from time to time is to support the halal assurance in the country. Therefore, it has to include all producers, including small and micro businesses.

Penelitian

Tanggal Publikasi: 30 Jan 2023

Sertifikasi Halal di Indonesia: Dari Voluntary menjadi Mandatory

Although Indonesia is the country with the largest Muslim population in the world, the halal industry faces several risks related to Shariah compliance. Following the enactment of Halal Assurance Law No. 33 of 2014, halal certification has become mandatory in Indonesia. Before, halal certificate was voluntary. The objective of this study is to discuss on the development of halal governance in Indonesia covering Halal Act, related government regulations and decrees from Ministries related to halal assurance and food security. In summary, the changes in halal governance in Indonesia from time to time is to support the halal assurance in the country. Therefore, it has to include all producers, including small and micro businesses.

Penelitian

Tanggal Publikasi: 26 Jan 2023

STOCKBROKING IN ISLAM: A REVIEW OF LITERATURES AND ITS FUTURE DEVELOPMENT IN MALAYSIA

The study aims at discussing the concept and practice of Islamic Stockbroking, and examining the opportunities of Islamic Stockbroking in Malaysia.The study adopts library research to discuss the concept of Islamic stockbroking. It also employs a semi-structured interview with industry players to prognosticate the future development of Islamic stockbroking in Malaysia. The study reveals that stockbroking is not a new concept in Islam. Classical jurists have discussed thoroughly the concept of samsarah (brokerage) from an Islamic perspective. The current practice of Islamic stockbroking in Malaysia employs two tiers of wakalah contract. Furthermore, the study concludes that the future of Islamic stockbroking in Malaysia is very promising, triggered by drivers on both the supply side and the demand side. The large Muslim population, wealth and economic growth are among the key factors for the development of Islamic stockbroking from the demand side. On the other hand, the Shari‟ah compliance of 89% of Malaysian stocks, Malaysia‟s position as an Islamic finance hub, and the natural progression of Islamic finance are all factors underpinning the future of Islamic stockbroking from the supply side. This study will add new literature in contemporary Islamic finance as not much study has been conducted on the subject matter

Penelitian

Tanggal Publikasi: 26 Jan 2023

Survey on Sharīʿah non-compliant events in Islamic banks in the practice of tawarruq financing in Malaysia

Purpose – Tawarruq (Islamic commodity financing) has evolved as the most ubiquitous concept in Malaysia’s Islamic banking industry. Nevertheless, the extensive use of tawarruq has invoked a number of Sharīʿah (Islamic law) concerns in its practice. This study aims to investigate the Sharīʿah non-compliant (SNC) phenomena in the practice of tawarruq financing in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach – This study adopts qualitative research methodology, combining both descriptive and content analysis. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 16 Malaysian Islamic commercial banks to unveil the Sharīʿah non-compliance issues in the application of tawarruq in Islamic banks (IBs) in Malaysia. Findings – This study found that some practices of tawarruq in Malaysia might not comply with Shari’ah, mainly because of the improper sequencing of contracts. The study also discovered that IBs adopt different approaches in dealing with SNC events and the income derived therefrom. Finally, the study noted the influence of board of director/management on certain Sharīʿah decisions particularly about the treatment of non-halal income. Research limitations/implications – The findings of the study serve as a reference to industry players and regulators in formulating Shari’ah non-compliance risk management framework for tawarruq practices. Originality/value – The survey on SNC issues in tawarruq practice constitutes the first of its kind in the existing literature.

Penelitian

Tanggal Publikasi: 26 Jan 2023

Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction in Banking Sector: A Review

The aim of this review paper is to know more about the service quality of Banking Sector available in Konkan Region through literature survey. In the 21st century, service quality and customer satisfaction are directly proportional to each other for achieving success in any industry and the same is applied to the banking sector in India. Customers play an important role in Banking Industry in India. Therefore Banks in India are responsible to fulfill needs of customers to retain survival and success in today’s modern era. Success of any organization depends upon their services quality and customer relationship with an organization. Retention of customer and business is totally depends upon services provided by banks to solve the complaints of customers instantly. This review paper summarizes the relationship between services quality, customer satisfaction and success of organization through literature survey in Banking Sector.

Penelitian

Tanggal Publikasi: 26 Jan 2023

Three basics of progressive Islamic education

Progressive Islamic education is an educational reconstruction that seeks to function the mind (intelligence) as optimally as possible in religious life, practice experiences and actual problems in education and is able to anticipate changes by thinking projectively (visionary) and acting proactively. This research is classified as a qualitative descriptive research. This study aims to describe the three basics of progressive Islamic education in educational development. This type of research is field research with case studies at MI Muhammadiyah Gonilan and SDIT Muhammadiyah Al Kautsar Gumpang Kartasura. This data collection method is carried out by observation, interviews and documentation, while data analysis is carried out interactively which begins with data reduction, data presentation and drawing conclusions. The results of the study show that the implementation of the three basics of progressive Islamic education is indicated by special characters in schools, namely smart schools, experience learning and educational for sustainable development. Smart school is carried out by optimizing human reason or thinking ability by balancing science and religion. Experience Learning makes experience a valuable lesson for educational progress, and educational for sustainable development shows that progressive education is always oriented.

Penelitian

Tanggal Publikasi: 26 Jan 2023

CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR DEVELOPMENT OF ISLAMIC STOCKBROKING IN MALAYSIA

Purpose  The chapter aims to examine the challenges and the opportunities for the development of Islamic stockbroking in Malaysia. Methodology  The chapter adopts library research to discuss the concept of Islamic stockbroking. It also employs a semi-structured interview with industry players to prognosticate the future development of Islamic stockbroking in Malaysia. Research Findings  The study concludes that the future of Islamic stockbroking in Malaysia is very promising, triggered by drivers on both the supply side and the demand side. The large Muslim population, wealth and economic growth are among the key factors for the development of Islamic stockbroking from the demand side. On the other hand, the Shari’ah compliance of 89% of Malaysian stocks, Malaysia’s position as an Islamic finance hub and the natural progression of Islamic finance are all factors underpinning the future of Islamic stockbroking from the supply side. However, lack of qualified human resources, political inconsistency, information technology infrastructure, product innovation as well as public perception are obstacles to its development. Value  This chapter will add new literature in contemporary Islamic finance, as not many studies have been done on the subject.

Penelitian

Tanggal Publikasi: 26 Jan 2023

STRENGTHENING INDONESIA’S ISLAMIC FINANCIAL INCLUSION: AN ANALYTIC NETWORK PROCESS APPROACH

This study proposes some strategies to strengthen Islamic financial inclusion in Indonesia. The study employs the Analytic Network Process (ANP) by interviewing Indonesian Islamic finance experts, including academics, regulators, and practitioners. The ANP results show that the strategies to strengthen Islamic financial inclusion in Indonesia, ranked based on their significance level, are product compatibility (0.28), financial infrastructure (0.25), human development (0.20), and demand creation (0.18). The study provides actionable recommendations for Islamic Financial Institutions (IFIs) in Indonesia when formulating their appropriate roadmaps and strategies for Islamic financial inclusion. This study is a pioneer work that develops an institutions-based strategy for Islamic financial inclusion in Indonesia based on expert judgments.

Penelitian

Tanggal Publikasi: 26 Jan 2023

How Shari`ah-compliant is Islamic Banking?

This research is a critical analysis of the practice of certain Islamic banks (IBs) and institutions offering Shari`ah-complaint financial services (ISFS). Under the guise of Islam, these IBs and ISFS in fact are the profit maximising business ventures. Their business practices are not in compliance with relevant rules and practices of Shari`ah. Nevertheless, due to absence of a strong yet dedicated regulatory body, no challenge can be mounted against them. The customer base of these IBs and ISFS is only on a note of well wish and good faith. But in absence of a watch dog, the good-will turns out to be a tool to betraying public trust. One the other hand, it makes mockery with the entire IF industry. Most of these )Bs and )SFS today grant their Shari`ah Advisory Committeesǯ ȋSACsȌ advisory role making their findings voluntary and optional. There may be a true compliance for correcting any breaches found by these bodies, but yet, legality works in a particular way. In absence of an executive power being granted to these bodies as which is also ingrained in the constitution, a bank or institution will fail the legal definition of it being Shari`ah-compliant. Compliance with the Sahri`ah in transactions is either obligatory or optional! There is no second way! At the end, the issue boils down to that of conscience and compliance where one is made victim for lack of it on the part of regulatory establishment. Whereas on the part of the subjected businesses, they are no more than mere ventures that are bent on making profit by any means using appealing slogans! Given the current practice of IBs and ISFS, the study suggests that their SACs must function independently and beyond the control of banks' own executive apparatus. The setting of these SACs and the executive power thereof must be ingrained within the constitution or basic rules. Among others, their power must include disciplinary measures being granted to these SACs by which they may disciple any failing managers or officials for noncompliance. Most of such IBs and ISFS seem to fail on this crucial provision. Therefore, the study finds that such IBs and ISFS are not legally Islamic.

Penelitian

Tanggal Publikasi: 26 Jan 2023

PROBLEMATIKA ZAKAT KORPORASI DI INDONESIA

Zakat korporasi merupakan salah satu kewajiban yang harus ditunaikan oleh perusahaan seperti yang telah disebutkan dalam fatwa Majelis Ulama Indonesia ke 3 tahun 2009, dan juga telah disebutkan dalam Undang-Undang zakat No. 23 Tahun 2011 Bab 1 Pasal 4 ayat (2) bagian c dan ayat (3), banyak perusahaan berlabel syariah yang tersebar diseluruh Indonesia dan terhimpun dalam Daftar Efek Syariah, banyaknya perusahaan tersebut tidak berbanding lurus dengan realisasi zakat perusahaan yang diterima oleh lembaga penghimpun zakat seperti BAZNAS. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode kualitatif deskriptif dengan wawancara mendalam sebagai alat penggali informasi, data diolah dan divalidasi dengan metode triangulasi sebagai alat untuk validasi hasil temuan dari hasil wawancara. Penelitian memiliki 3 tujuan, pertama, menganalisis pengaruh fatwa terhadap zakat korporasi, kedua menganalisis peran pemerintah dalam mendorong zakat korporasi, ketiga menganalisis permasalahan yang terjadi dalam zakat korporasi di Indonesia. Hasil penelitian menujukkan bahwa fatwa MUI sifatnya tidak mengikat, sehingga fatwa sangat mudah disepelekan, Pemerintah lebih berpihak pada pajak dan CSR, sehingga mempengaruhi penerapan Fatwa dan UU zakat korporasi, ketika perusahaan-perusahaan di hadapkan dengan regulasi pajak dan CSR yang begitu ketat, maka hal itu menjadikan zakat korporasi ini dipandang sebelah mata, begitupula dengan perumusan Undang-Undang Zakat ini yang tidak memiliki regulasi untuk mewajibkan muzakki dalam menunaikan kewajibannya untuk membayar zakat korporasi.

Penelitian

Tanggal Publikasi: 26 Jan 2023

DETERMINANTS OF ISLAMIC FINANCIAL EXCLUSION IN INDONESIA

The study aimed to uncover the determinants of Islamic financial exclusion in Indonesia by gathering responses from financially-excluded respondents. A total of 110 respondents were surveyed, representing five provinces: West Java, South Sulawesi, Aceh, East Kalimantan, and North Maluku. The criteria of the selected participants included those who were financially-excluded, those who did not own any Islamic financial products, those without savings or financing, and those with no capital market products. The study employs Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to identify indicators explaining Islamic financial exclusion determinants in Indonesia. The paper found that location is the key barrier to obtaining financing from and being able to build savings in Islamic banks/Islamic microfinance, while a lack of financial knowledge is identified as the critical barrier when dealing with Islamic capital market products. Overall, most respondents perceived human capital and products and services to be the two most significant determinants of Islamic financial exclusion in Indonesia, followed by infrastructure, policies and regulation, financial literacy, social influence, and religious commitment. The originality of the paper lies in its detailed insight into the perception of being financially excluded on factors leading to Islamic financial exclusion

Penelitian

Tanggal Publikasi: 26 Jan 2023

Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Euphorbia wallichii Leaf Extract: Its Antibacterial Action against Citrus Canker Causal Agent and Antioxidant Potential

Biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles are emerging as attractive alternatives to chemical pesticides due to the ease of their synthesis, safety and antimicrobial activities in lower possible concentrations. In the present study, we have synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using the aqueous extract of the medicinal plant Euphorbia wallichii and tested them against the plant pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis, the causative agent of citrus canker, via an in vitro experiment. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by techniques such as UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis and transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, the plant species were investigated for phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant activity. The antioxidant potential of the extract was determined against a DPPH radical. The extract was also evaluated for phenolic compounds using the HPLC technique. The results confirmed the synthesis of centered cubic, spherical-shaped and crystalline nanoparticles by employing standard characterization techniques. A qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phenolics (41.52 mg GAE/g), flavonoids (14.2 mg QE/g) and other metabolites of medicinal importance. Different concentrations (1000 µg/mL to 15.62 µg/mL—2 fold dilutions) of AgNPs and plant extract (PE) alone, and both in combination (AgNPs-PE), exhibited a differential inhibition of X. axanopodis in a high throughput antibacterial assay. Overall, AgNPs-PE was superior in terms of displaying significant antibacterial activity, followed by AgNPs alone. An appreciable antioxidant potential was recorded as well. The observed antibacterial and antioxidant potential may be attributed to eight phenolic compounds identified in the extract. The Euphorbia wallichii leaf-extract-induced synthesized AgNPs exhibited strong antibacterial activity against X. axanopodis, which could be exploited as effective alternative preparations against citrus canker in planta in a controlled environment. In addition, as a good source of phenolic compounds, the plant could be further exploited for potent antioxidants.

Penelitian

Tanggal Publikasi: 26 Jan 2023

Sharīʿah non-compliant assets as rahn (pledge) in Islamic banking products: a fiqhī perspective

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to present a framework regarding the use of Sharīʿah non-compliant assets as rahn (pledge) and to provide the Sharīʿah analysis on the application of numerous collateral instruments, including financial assets such as shares, unit trusts, current accounts and investment accounts which are Sharīʿah non-compliant. Design/methodology/approach – The study adopts a library-based approach to examine the concept and requirements of rahn, deliberate the classification of Sharīʿah non-compliant assets and delineate the Sharīʿah views on the use of Sharīʿah non-compliant assets as pledges. It also examines the various forms of pledge available and offered in the market using document analysis as well as through discussion with industry practitioners. Findings – In general, the study concludes that Sharīʿah non-compliant assets, either due to their essence or due to the means of acquisition where there is no ownership from Sharīʿah perspective, cannot be used as rahn. This study also provides the Sharīʿah analysis on the use of modern instruments such as shares, unit trusts, current accounts, investment accounts and insurance policy as pledges. Originality/value – The paper provides a reference source for regulators in formulating an appropriate policy and framework on Sharīʿah-compliant collateral; Sharīʿah committees of Islamic financial institutions in arriving at Sharīʿah decisions on collateral; and industry practitioners in establishing internal policies and procedures on collateral.

Penelitian

Tanggal Publikasi: 26 Jan 2023

ASSESSING THE ROLE OF CUSTOMER SATISFACTION IN ATTAINING CUSTOMER LOYALTY: A STUDY OF FAST FOOD RESTAURANT IN KOLHAPUR CITY.

Fast food refers the food that sold in a restaurant or store with preheated or precooked ingredients and served to the customer in a packaged form for take-out/take-away. India's growing middle class and their changing food habits offer unprecedented growth opportunities to the quick-service restaurant industry. To reap the benefits of Indian market many global brands have entered the market. In a competitive marketplace, customer satisfaction is seen as a key differentiator and important marketing objectives to be achieved. Customer satisfaction is the customers’ evaluation of goods or services in terms of whether that goods or services have met his needs and expectations. Numerous studies show the positive and significant relationship between customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. Besides, there are studies indicating customer satisfaction is only one antecedent of customer loyalty. The present study explores components of customer satisfaction through using exploratory factor analysis at Rolls Mania a fast food service restaurant at Kolhapur City. The empirical evidence of 154 customers reveals that dining experience; accessibility, convenience & affordability and product test are the important components of customer satisfaction. The regression analysis result reveals significant relationship between customer satisfaction and customer loyalty.

Penelitian

Tanggal Publikasi: 26 Jan 2023

DETERMINANTS OF SHARIAH NON-COMPLIANT EVENTS IN ISLAMIC BANKS IN MALAYSIA: WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO TAWARRUQ-BASED FINANCING

Tawarruq is a new phenomenon in the Islamic financial landscape. It has gained wide acceptance from the market due to its inherent characteristics that can offer similar features as the conventional structure. Nevertheless, tawarruq is exposed to a high degree of shari’ah non-compliant risk mainly because it involves a series of sale contracts in succession. The present study investigates the determinants of shari’ah non-compliant events (SNEs) in tawarruq-based financing as practiced by Islamic banks in Malaysia. The study adopts the Analytic Network Process (ANP) gathering different views of experts from practitioners, regulators, sharī’ah scholars/advisors and researchers/academicians. The study found that lack of understanding and knowledge, inadequate control mechanism and reporting, ineffective functional structure, incompatibility of system to the execution of Islamic products, improper document execution and sequence, and inadequate internal policies and governing rules are the key determinants of SNEs in tawarruq-based financing in Islamic banks in Malaysia.