Sebastian Herman, M.Ec
Peneliti LPPM Tazkia
Tanggal Publikasi: 8 Sep 2023
The Thoughts of Sheikh Al Maududi and Ayatollah Baqir Shadr on Interest
The past victories of Islam were weakened by stagnating scientific progress, slowing Muslim economic growth, and weakening military power in Islamic countries, and were easily defeated by the West. During this period, scholars were stigmatized as closed doors to Izhad and experienced a so-called sluggishness in which there was little development and innovation in both religion and science. Open the door to Ijtihad such as Johor ulema Dato' Syed Salim Abdullah al-Attas (1873-1899), Dato' Abdullah Musa (1899-1907), Syed 'Abd Qadir Muhsin al-Attas (1909 -1933) ) and Syed Alwi Tahir al-Haddad (1933-1941). Currently, Muslims are undergoing various attacks from scientific and economic aspects, especially in relation to interest, and until now, there are still some Muslims who do not consider interest, especially bank interest, to be haram. It's a pity. That's why scholars tried to empower Muslims, such as Sunni Abul Ala al-Moudi and Shia Sheikh Bakr Sadr. This study uses a literature review method with reference to selected journals and books and aims to explore whether there are differences between Sunnis and Shiites regarding this interest.
Tanggal Publikasi: 8 Sep 2023
How Omar bin Abdul Aziz Reached Economic Golden Era: Unearthing the Umayyad History From Economics Perspective
This research discusses on how Omar bin Abdul Aziz reached economic golden era in terms of his leadership characters and impact of his economic regulations. The researcher used a qualitative descriptive approach in this study, and this type of research is library research. This study was conducted to solve a problem that is based on critical and in-depth research on relevant library materials. The outcome demonstrates that Omar bin Abdul Aziz's principles and ideals of simplicity and modesty, honesty, justice, and truth, and the abolition of feudalism are consistent with the impact felt by the people as a result of his policies. Economic policies include the elimination of discrimination, the Zakat sector, the administration sector, the agricultural sector, and the issue of kharâj jizyah. Keywords: Economic Policy, Caliph Omar bin Abdul Aziz, Golden Era
Tanggal Publikasi: 20 Jul 2023
Industri Halal dan Ekonomi Digital : Peluang Bisnis dan Karir di Masa Depan
This community service aims to socialize future business and career opportunities in the halal industry and digital economy to 12th grade high school students at 5 Islamic schools spread across 3 districts in West Sumatra Province. In addition, this activity also aims to socialize the Tazkia Islamic Institute. This activity was carried out in the form of an offline seminar at the five schools.
Tanggal Publikasi: 1 Jan 2019
The Privatization of State-Owned Enterprises in Islamic Perspective: Case of Indonesia
In Indonesia, the last few years have seen the privatization of many industries previously owned by the state. The surge was requirement of International Monetary Fund (IMF) to lend its fund in order to support Indonesian economy after monetary crises between 1997 and 1999. However, this phenomenon causes some novel polemics amidst stakeholders. Most of nation‟s wealth is brought by multinational companies to overseas without rendering great benefit to citizen. Therefore, inhabitant cannot savour many adventages from their abundant natural resources. In line with this privatization case, Islam as a way of life which is universal and comprehensive has a particular discussion on assets ownership that should be utilised according to its status. There are three concepts of ownership in Islam, namely individual, public and government ownership. The main objective of this paper is to point out the best scheme of natural resources ownership, whether should be owned by public, private or state based on siyāsah sharī„ah approach. The author utilizes descriptive qualitative methodology to find the appropriate pattern of natural resources management in Indonesia, particularly firms which manage the basic need of human being.
Tanggal Publikasi: 1 Jan 2021
Revisiting An Islamic Approach to Humanities: A Critical Review
urpose: The study aims to develop a relevant counter-argument and supporting justification on ideas offered by Zaman (2014) in his paper titled "An Islamic Approach to Humanities."
Design/Method/Approach: This study adopts a quantitative approach in form of a literature survey, discourse and critical content analysis. For achieving the goal, we capitalize on Ghazi (2006) to support the argument that the source of knowledge is not only through observations. Kalin (2016) and Zarkasyi (2018) are being used to show that Islam encourages reasoning and observations. To support the argument that Islamic economics can be positivistic, we use Abdullahi (2018) as a related paper to deal with that issue.
Findings: The study found that Islamic Economics can use the tools of logical positivists in its observation as long as such tools do not contradict the logical structure of the Islamic worldview. Social science like Islamic economics is only an avenue to see the expression of free will that Allah gives to the human being by observing the pattern of human behavior. When the results can describe closer to reality, it can survive and support the development of social science itself.
Originality/Values: The main contribution of this study is to clarify the position of Islamic economics on the logical positivism method and its implication in value integration.
Tanggal Publikasi: 31 Des 2021
Efficiency of Pre-Merged State-Owned Sharia Banks In Indonesia Using 2-Stage DEA
This study intends to conduct a comparative test of efficiency of the 3 merged state-owned banks using 5 merged Simulation models which will be measured by the 2-stage Data Envelopment Analysis (2-stage DEA) method with Islamic banks and also conventional in Indonesia. This study uses a quantitative approach using the 2-Stages Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method. By using in the first stage this method can measure the efficiency score generated from the input and also the output that has been determined, among others, by inputs namely Savings, Administrative Costs, Personal Costs. The outputs used are Financing and Income. In the second stage the method used is Tobit Regression which will see whether there is an influence between the dependent variables determined on the efficiency score. The dependent variable consists of 2 types, namely macrobanks consisting of GDP, Inflation, and Interest Rate. While the other is the Microbank variable including NPF, FDR, and ROA. In this study, 5 combination simulations will also be examined, which will see which combination is the most efficient. From the results of the study, it was found that the efficiency of Islamic banking as a whole is still below the efficiency of conventional banking. Meanwhile, by using 5 simulations of the merger planned by the government, namely combining BRI Syariah, BNI Syariah, and Mandiri Syariah, it was found that the merger of the 3 banks is the most optimal option in terms of efficiency. In this study also found that the dependent variable that affects the efficiency score is the ROA variable. Meanwhile, for other variables, namely NPF, FDR, GDP, Inflation, and also Interest rate does not significantly affect the efficiency score.
Tanggal Publikasi: 30 Nov 2022
KONSEP PENGELOLAAN HARTA NEGARA BERDASARKAN PEMIKIRAN BAQIR AS-SADR
Thisstudy is a literature study on the thought of Baqir As-Sadr in a national wealth management. This study is also explain aboutthe background of Baqir As-Sadr and the basis of his thought in the wealth management. This study adopting a qualitative approach with dual-stage analysis, that is a literature review method to analyze the thought of Baqir As-Sadr in national wealth management. Futhermore, descriptive analysis method to explain about Baqir As-Sadr thought of national wealth management in context of Indonesia. The result of this study shows the aims of national wealth management is prosperity. To achieve that purpose, a several strategic policy is required to be implemented, such as abolition of private land ownership. The private sector only has use rights or land management rights. This is intended so that production can be controlled according to needs and the state can regulate its distribution
Tanggal Publikasi: 1 Jan 2023
Modeling Financial Realization of Regional Budget Using Maqasad al-Shari’ah Approach: A Case of Central Bangka Regency
This chapter discusses how the financial realization in the monitoring and evaluation data of the regional budget of Central Bangka Regency is in accordance with the maqasad al-shari’ah approach. Also, this research will provide a new model for regional development programs that are in accordance with the 5 maqasad al-shari’ah priorities. This chapter uses a qualitative method using the analytic network process or ANP with case studies in the Central Bangka Regency. This method is a way of obtaining decisions and using calculations to get a ratio scale. Data from this study were obtained from interviews with related sections, direct observations, and related data. From this study, it will be known that the realization of monitoring and evaluation of data of the Bangka Tengah District is not in accordance with the approach of the maqasad al-shari’ah; also, this study will find a new data monitoring and evaluation model based on the five concepts of the maqasad al-shari’ah.
Tanggal Publikasi: 28 Apr 2023
Analysis of Economic Policy During the Time of Sultan Jalaludin Akbar in the Mughal Empire
Based on the formulation of the problem above, the objectives to be achieved by researchers in writing this paper are: 1) Assess the role of Jallaludin Muhammad Akbar in carrying out the economic policies of the government of the Mughal Empire in India in 1556-1605 AD. The historical method has four steps in conducting historical research, namely (1) Heuristics, (2) Historiography, (3) critic, (4) Interpretation Agriculture and Trade Sector The Mughal economic system was based on agriculture and trade. Communication between farmers regulated by the government in a good way. Taxation Council (1) high taxes given to high officials of the Mughal Empire, (2) Taxeslow for farmers. Tax collection is usually in the form of land tax and property tax (Ownership of goods). The conclusion is that King Jalalludin Akbar, his economic policies are closely related to being based on the political and social policies that during sted the Mughal dynasty. Poor people do not object to economic policies, but object to other policies, high tolerance with normal taxes makes economic policies run smoothly even though removing the jizyah policy but jalaludin agung can still reach its peak of glory with agriculture and its export trade to various regions.
Tanggal Publikasi: 28 Apr 2023
The Economic Policy Of Umar Bin Khattab To Face Ramadhan Crisis
The Economic Crisis is a situation of instability that can affect individuals and even large groups that tend to harm. The threat of crisis did not only occur in the current era but in the Khulafaur Rashidun Era, namely during the time of Umar Bin Khattab, namely the Ramadan Crisis, which was a crisis that occurred in the Hijaz area and its surroundings between 17-18H. At that time Ramadan greatly impacted the economy of Muslims because the population was starving, the land was black, livestock died and prices soared. Even trading activities could not carry out their normal activities. Ramadah occurred because the rains did not fall which caused drought, the occurrence of the bubonic plague which disrupted trading activities and because of rampant adultery and judges who acted tyrannically. Umar bin Khattab radhiallahu anh made many changes to his policies at that time.
The research method used in this study is qualitative research, using a historical approach in which the author collects written sources in this research. From the results of this writing, it can be interpreted that economic policy during the caliphate of Umar bin Khattab could not be separated from Umar's intelligence and expertise as a caliph with his ijtihad and deliberations he conducted with friends. It is hoped that this writing can provide references and guidelines for the implementation of governance in managing countries
Tanggal Publikasi: 12 Jun 2023
Modelling Zakat and Waqf Scheme for Empowering Across-the-board Refugees
The objective of this study is to propose a model of empowering global refugees by utilizing zakat and waqf through Islamic microfinance institutions. The model introduced is an extended model of the model developed by Kachkar (2017) and Indrawan et al. (2018). A thorough review of relevant literature is conducted to develop this model. The proposed approach, referred to as the Integrated Zakat and Waqf Model for Refugees (IZWMR), introduces the zakat element as an extension of the previous model. Additionally, the waqf component of the model includes not only cash waqf but also land waqf, thereby enabling the optimal utilization of idle waqf assets to empower refugees and support their livelihood. This study aims to raise awareness within society about the challenges faced by refugees, provide a comprehensive model to address the global refugee crisis, and create opportunities for the more effective and impactful utilization of Islamic social finance instruments, such as zakat and waqf. The extended model added the micro-takaful concept which provide insurance or risk management solution for micro enterprise operated by refugees who has get entrepreneurship training.
Tanggal Publikasi: 1 Jan 2023
THE INFLUENCE OF MACROECONOMIC VARIABLES ON TRADING OF SUKUK NEGARA DURING PANDEMIC: CASE OF INDONESIA
The year 2020 and 2021 became an unprecedented challenge due to the covid pandemic affecting many aspects around the world, including the economy. On the other side, over the past decade has the global Sukuk market become an increasingly prominent funding source for companies, financial institutions, and governments. For handling the pandemic in Indonesia, the Ministry of Finance has repeatedly issued Sukuk Negara. The objective of study is to analyze the short-term and longterm impact of macroeconomic variables on the sukuk trade in Indonesia and to see the impact of these macroeconomic variables on the stability of the Sukuk Negara Trade and the contribution of these variables during the pandemic to the Sukuk Negara. It was found that the exchange rate and inflation have a significant positive effect on the trading of sovereign sukuk in the secondary market. The most variable contribution is sovereign sukuk trade itself, followed by the Exchange rate.
Tanggal Publikasi: 1 Jan 2023
Islamic Development Concept: A Proposal For Betterment of Muslim Ummah in the Post-Pandemic Episode
Islamic civilization was the pearl of the world with multidimensional aspects of achievements, especially during the Dark Age of West civilization. In stark contrast to this, the Muslim world nowadays is experiencing a marginalized society on this planet. The majority of Muslim countries are backward educationally, socially, economically, and politically. Furthermore, the world nowadays is suffering an economic crisis due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study tries to investigate the economic development concept from an Islamic perspective, compare it with current data on OIC member countries and provide recommendations for policymakers to stave the disaster off. The study adopts a quantitative approach in form of a literature review, discourse, and critical content analysis. It found that economic development in an Islamic perspective can be defined as a multidimensional process to improve welfare, in both material and spiritual aspects. However, In reality, OIC member countries have potentials and obstacles for growth. Strengthening the education sectors, infusion of Islamic values, support SMEs’ development with ICT are some recommended policies. The main contribution of this study is to assess the current condition of Muslim Ummah represented by OIC member countries, by the development concept of Islam and deliver some policies for the betterment of the ummah.
Tanggal Publikasi: 1 Jan 2023
Integrated Zakat and Waqf Model for Refugees (IZWMR), Proposal to Improve Livelihood of Global Refugees
This paper aims to provide extended model from cash waqf based microfinance model developed by Kachkar (2017) that envisioned providing access for betterment of livelihood for refugees. Literature study from relevant sources is conducted to develop the model. The proposed model, called Integrated Zakat and Waqf Model for Refugees (IZWMR) add zakat element as extension from previous model. Also, waqf element within the model will include not only cash waqf, but land waqf as well in order to open opportunity for more optimum utilization of idle waqf assets by empowering the refugees and support their livelihood. This study is expected to enhance awareness of society to refugees problem, provide a comprehensive proposed model to solve global refugees problem and open opportunity for more optimum and impactful utilization of Islamic social finance instruments, i.e. zakat and waqf.
Tanggal Publikasi: 1 Jan 2023
IBN KHALDUN MODEL ON POVERTY: THE CASE OF ORGANIZATION OF ISLAMIC CONFERENCE (OIC) COUNTRIES
If we consider the state of the world economy, especially in the OIC countries, some countries have to struggle in dealing with the problems of poverty. Hypothetically, the wealth of natural resources is potentially in the welfare of the population, but the facts on the ground say the situation is another in which it is far from being wellbeing. This study aims to analyze poverty in OIC countries by using a development model proposed by Ibn Khaldun. The model consists of six variables: human resource variable (proxy HDI), the variable role of government (proxy government spending in education and health), variable of development (proxy foreign direct investment), state assets variable (proxy for GDP/capita), justice variable (gini index proxy) and sharia variable (a proxy perception index of corruption). This study uses panel data regression analysis with nine object OIC member countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, Egypt, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkey and Benin) over the years from 2010 to 2016. The results showed that the variables of development model Ibn Khaldun significant effect on poverty in OIC countries is development variable, the variable role of government (proxy for government spending in health sector), justice variable, wealth nation variable and control variables (unemployment). While the role of government variable (proxy government spending in the education sector), HR variables and sharia variables not significant. From these studies, it can be concluded that not all the variables of development model Ibn Khaldun significant effect on poverty in OIC countries.